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WATER USE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF LOWLAND RICE BASED ON CARBON EFFICIENT FARMING (CEF) SUKAMANDI

 WATER USE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF LOWLAND RICE BASED ON CARBON EFFICIENT FARMING (CEF) SUKAMANDI

1Umi Haryati and 1Yoyo Soelaeman

1IAARD researchers at Indonesia Soil Research Institute. Jl. Tentura Pelajar No. 12.  Cimanggu. Bogor (umiharyati @yahoo.com )

Abstract. One criterion of carbon efficient ferming (CEF) is water use efficiency without reducing crop production. Rice ferming at Experimrntal Station of sukamandi was managed by fermer groups using conventional irrigation by irrigating continuously, This irrigation system was wasting water that caused low crop water use efficiency. The aims of this study ware to demermine efficiency of crop water use in lowland rice and to find out alternative irrigation tecniques to improve water use efficiency. The experiment was conducted at 2011/2012 planting season consisting of thee activies:  1) Analysis was agroecossystem,  2) Survey to farmers using semi structure interview, and  3) field  observations to calculate efficiency of water use. The results showed that the climate in the Experimental Station was categorized into C2-C3 types, with 2 wet and 6 dry months, and the average annual rainfall was 1,466 mm year -1. Water surplus occurred  from  May to October and deficit in Desember, Fabruary, and March. The soils ware dominated by Ultisols wath silty clay loam to clay texture. The soil had medium bulk density (BD), high total pore space and pose of available water, and slow soil permeability. The average rice yield at the site was 5-7 t ha -1  wath 0,9 up to 1.5 kg/m3 crop water use efficiency level under conventional irrigation systems. Intermittent irrigation system increased crop water use efficiency of paddy by 34 up to 45%.

Keyword: Water use efficiency, paddy, CEF

INTRODUCTION   

In the future, agricultural development in Indonesia faces serveral  challenges of how to establish a sustainable national food security and improve fermers’ welfare, as wel as to keep resources  continuity and sustainability. Another challenge  is to strive for the achievement of the millennium Development Geals ( MDGs), which include poverty reduction, unemployment and foot insecurity. Meanwhile on a global scale, the agricultural, sector is required to raise awareness on globel warming threat through efforts of adaptation and mitigation to reduse green house gas (GHS) emissions. To support  these efforts, the government  has issued presidential  Decree on the National Action Plan for green House Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK) No. 61/2011 and Presidential Regulation No.71/2011 on Green House Gas Inventory.

                National and global challenges,  among others, can answered through the development of Cerbon Efficient Farming (CEF) or green farming. Green farming is part of the Green Economy that prioritize economic growts with due regard to the environment, including the reduction GHG emissions.

UTLIZATION OF LOWLAND SWAMP FOR RICE FIRLD IN ACCORDANCE WITH FISHERIES AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (CASE STUDY IN PAMPANG

 UTLIZATION OF LOWLAND SWAMP FOR RICE FIRLD IN ACCORDANCE WITH FISHERIES AND ANIMAL  HUSBANDRY (CASE STUDY IN PAMPANG

1DINA Muthmainnah, 2Zulkifli Dahlan, 2Robiayanto H.Susanto, 1Abdul Karim Gaffar, and 2Dwi Putro priadi

1Researchers at Research Intitute for Inland Firsheries, Jln. Baringin no. 8 Mariana. Palembang-South Sumatra (e-mail: dina.gifar@yahoo.co.id )

2Lecturer of Environmental Doctoral Programme, Sriwijaya University

Abstaract. This research was focused on the evaluation of functions of lowlands swamp ecosystem for food production, conducted in Pempangan sub district of Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatra Province. During rainy season the area’s of aquatic environment  is suitable for fishing ground while during dry seasonthe area becomes rice field. Animal husbandry activities used the area as grazing field of swamp buffalo (kerbau rawa). Rice cultivation is only oe time a year with sequence activies begin with land clearing, collection of plant litter, growing rice seedling, wee control, and harvest. There were four variesties of rice cultivated in the area such as: Celiwung Serang, IR-42, and INPARA-3. Rice productivity was quite low (about 1 ton per ha per year) from the total areas of 11,070 ha paddy field. Integration of rice cultivation – fisheries – and animal husbandry within swamp area can increase fermer’s  Income. In order to reach sustainable use of swamp esosystem, some management schemes should be practiced by balancing rate of exploitation with conservation of the resources.

Keywords: Lowlands, integrated system, paddy field, fisheries, animal husbandry

INTRODUCTION

Indonisia areas of lowland swamp is about 33 million hectares which were grouped into tidal and non tidal swamps. About 13,296,770 hectares area (39.8%)  is categorized as non tidal swamp and only 341,526 hectares of which has been developed into agricultural land (Ditjen Pengairan Depertmen PU in Susanto 2010). Therefore, the swampland have potentials to develop in order to produce food. In South Sumatra Province, there were 1.1 million hectares non tidal lowlands swamp areas (Sumsel in figure 2005), whice are still under utilized.

                Lowland swamp is a haif way world between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem and exhibits some of the characteristics of aech (Smith 1980).  Mitsch & Gosselink (1986) described that lowlands are distinguished by the presence of water, have a unique soils that differ from adjacent uplands, and support geowth of vegetations adapted to the wet condition. Zinn and Copeland (1982) defined although water is present for the least part the time, the depth and duration of flooding very considerably from wetland to wetland, and often at the margins between deep water and terrestrial uplands, and are influenced by both systems.