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WATER USE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF LOWLAND RICE BASED ON CARBON EFFICIENT FARMING (CEF) SUKAMANDI

 WATER USE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF LOWLAND RICE BASED ON CARBON EFFICIENT FARMING (CEF) SUKAMANDI

1Umi Haryati and 1Yoyo Soelaeman

1IAARD researchers at Indonesia Soil Research Institute. Jl. Tentura Pelajar No. 12.  Cimanggu. Bogor (umiharyati @yahoo.com )

Abstract. One criterion of carbon efficient ferming (CEF) is water use efficiency without reducing crop production. Rice ferming at Experimrntal Station of sukamandi was managed by fermer groups using conventional irrigation by irrigating continuously, This irrigation system was wasting water that caused low crop water use efficiency. The aims of this study ware to demermine efficiency of crop water use in lowland rice and to find out alternative irrigation tecniques to improve water use efficiency. The experiment was conducted at 2011/2012 planting season consisting of thee activies:  1) Analysis was agroecossystem,  2) Survey to farmers using semi structure interview, and  3) field  observations to calculate efficiency of water use. The results showed that the climate in the Experimental Station was categorized into C2-C3 types, with 2 wet and 6 dry months, and the average annual rainfall was 1,466 mm year -1. Water surplus occurred  from  May to October and deficit in Desember, Fabruary, and March. The soils ware dominated by Ultisols wath silty clay loam to clay texture. The soil had medium bulk density (BD), high total pore space and pose of available water, and slow soil permeability. The average rice yield at the site was 5-7 t ha -1  wath 0,9 up to 1.5 kg/m3 crop water use efficiency level under conventional irrigation systems. Intermittent irrigation system increased crop water use efficiency of paddy by 34 up to 45%.

Keyword: Water use efficiency, paddy, CEF

INTRODUCTION   

In the future, agricultural development in Indonesia faces serveral  challenges of how to establish a sustainable national food security and improve fermers’ welfare, as wel as to keep resources  continuity and sustainability. Another challenge  is to strive for the achievement of the millennium Development Geals ( MDGs), which include poverty reduction, unemployment and foot insecurity. Meanwhile on a global scale, the agricultural, sector is required to raise awareness on globel warming threat through efforts of adaptation and mitigation to reduse green house gas (GHS) emissions. To support  these efforts, the government  has issued presidential  Decree on the National Action Plan for green House Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK) No. 61/2011 and Presidential Regulation No.71/2011 on Green House Gas Inventory.

                National and global challenges,  among others, can answered through the development of Cerbon Efficient Farming (CEF) or green farming. Green farming is part of the Green Economy that prioritize economic growts with due regard to the environment, including the reduction GHG emissions.