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RICE FARMING SYSTEMS IN SOUTH SUMATRA TIDAL SWAMP AREAS: PROBLEMS AND FEED BACKS BASED ON FARMER’S POINT OF VIEWS

RICE FARMING SYSTEMS IN SOUTH SUMATRA TIDAL SWAMP AREAS: PROBLEMS AND FEED BACKS BASED ON FARMER’S POINT OF VIEWS

*)IAARD Researchers at Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 12. Cimanggu-Bogor.

*)Author contact: yoyo_soelaeman@yahoo.com

Abstract. Tidal swamp area in the Southern of Sumatra is a source of rice production to support the national rice self-sufficiency. However, the rice yields achieved by farmers are relatively lower compared to the potential yield gained in research. To identify the problems faced by the farmers, farmers’ interviews and workshop have been conducted at the study sites located in delta Telang, Sugihan Kanan, Karang Agung Ilir, and Pulau Rimau in April 1999. The results showed that improvement of land, water, and farm  managements in cooperator farmers’ areas increased rice yield from 2 to 3.43-3.96 t ha-1 and farmer’s profits by 55.4%. The profits of cooperator farmers increased in following year to 69.6%. diffusion process of technologies also increased the profits of non-cooperator farmers between 12.2-29.5%. eventhough the improvement of rice farming management in tidal swamp areas has shown a significant increase  in yields and farmer’s incomes, however, to develop the recommended technology to the wider areas still faces some problems on the aspects of land and water management, farm management, marketing, farmer’s institution, assistance from extension workers, and the availability of equipment and agricultural machinery.

Keywords: Rice, tidal swamp management, problems, farmers’ feed back

INTRODUCTION

The agricultural sector plays a significant role in Indonesian economic development. During the last two decades, the government has placed a major effort on agricultural development, especially in increasing rice production. Experiences showed that the instability of rice supply affected not only the economic but also the political aspects of the country. Therefore, the production and supply of rice play a central role in food policy.

PUGAM: A SPECIFIC FERTILIZER FOR PEAT LAND TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSION AND IMPROVE SOIL PRODUCTIVITY

PUGAM: A SPECIFIC FERTILIZER FOR PEAT LAND TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSION AND IMPROVE SOIL PRODUCTIVITY

I G.M. Subiksa

IAARD Researcher at Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No.12 Cimanggu. Bogor

Abstract. Peat land on Indonesia covers about 14 M  ha about 6 M ha was considered suitable for agriculture. When peat land was drained for agriculture purposes, organic  matter will be decomposed to emit CO2 GAS, WHICH contributes to global warming. Due to low fertility status, agricultural practices on peat land need have external nutrients input. However, fertilizing peat land to provide nutrient peeded by plant generally increases microbial activity and at the end increases CO2 emission. Paradox situation faced by farmer should be coped trough technology application by using low carbon emission fertilizer called pugam. Pugam is phosphate base fertilizer enriched with polyvalent cations and micronutrients and micronutrients needed by plant. Pugam worked trough three processes namely: providing nutrients to improve plant growth; stabilizing organic substance and neutralizing toxic phenolic acids; and establishing free positive charges from polyvalent cations. Effectiveness of pugam had been tested both in green house and peat land in the field. Testing results revealed that pugam very significantly increased plant growth of both corn and rice. In the same time pugam decreased CO2  emission by 47-58%. The same trend also showed by field-testing where pugam significantly increased growth and yield of corn and decreased CO2 EMISSION BY 20-30%. Laboratory test showed that Pugam application on hemic peat decreased P leaching from the pot very significantly. The prospectus of pugam will be able to cope the problem of peatland utilization for agriculture.

Keyword: Pugam, peat land, CO2 emission, low productivity, phosphate, micronutrient

INTRODUCTION

In the last decade, peat land has become global issues because it has been considered as source of green gas (GHG) emission, which has contributed to global warming. Peat land has huge terrestrial carbon stock, which has been sunk in thousand years. Page et al. (2002) reported that carbon age in 8-10 m peat depth in Central Kalimantan is about 13,000-26,000 years old based on carbon dating. Wahyunto et al. (2004) reported that carbon stock on Indonesian Peat land was about 37 Gt within 20.97 M ha area. The average of carbon stock per ha varied in range beetwen 454-3,095 t ha-1. If peat forest converted to agricultural purposes, carbo accumulated in thousand years will be emit CO2 and increase air CO2 concentration. Peat forest conversion and peat fire have shared the most national GHG emission in Indonesia. Therefore, efforts to reduce CO2 emission from peat land will be able reduce national GHG emission significantly.