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POTENTIAL OF INDIGENOUS PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM FRESH-WATER INCEPTISOLS TO INCREASE SOLUBLE P

POTENTIAL OF INDIGENOUS PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM FRESH-WATER INCEPTISOLS TO INCREASE SOLUBLE P

1,2 Nuni Gofar, 1,3Hary Widjayanti, and 1,4NI Luh Putu Sri Ratmini

1Researcher at Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands, Sriwijaya University. Jl. Padang Selasa Palembang-South Sumatra. Phone / fax:0711352879; Email: pur-plso@unsri.ac.id 9Corresponding author email: nigofar@yahoo.co.id)

2Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University. Palembang-South Sumatra

3Departement of Biology, Faculty of MIPA, Sriwijaya University. Palembang-South Sumatra

4South Sumatra Assesment  Institute for Agricultural Technology. Jl. Kol H. Barlian No.83 Km.6. Palembang-South Sumatra. Email: bptp-sumsel@litbang.deptan.go.id

Abstract. This research was done to obtain phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) indigenous from fresh-water Inceptisols that were highly capable of dissolving soil p. The research consisted of two sub-experiments. Sub-experiment I was to isolate the indigenous PSB from rhizosphere of rice, corn, and beans that were grown on fresh-water Inceptisols. Sub-experiment II was to study the ability of isolated PSB to dissolving soil saturated with AIPO4 with a dossages of 0, 10, and 20 g of AIPO4. Isolation and count of the bacterial population obtained were PSB population of 3.06-50.27X106 cfu g-1 soil and 5 isolates able to form clear zones on the Pikovskaya’s medium. In soil saturated with 10 and 20 g AIPO4  kg-1,, the best isolate increasing the P availability was I1. The total P increases were significantl correlated with the increases of available P. P concentration in the soil as an indication of phosphate solubilization  capacity. The increases of soil pH value were significantly correlated with the increases of soluble P. In the acid soils, PSB BLOCKED P sorption by binding elements and reducing the toxicity of AL3+ and Fe3+ on plants.

Keywords: Fresh water, Inceptisols, PSB, Soluble P

INTRODUCTION

Phosphorus (P) element is a major growth-limiting nutrient and referred as master key element in crop production (Saxena and Sharma 2003). Unlike the case for nitrogen, there is no large atmospheric source that can be made biologically available (Ezawa et al. 2002). The soluble forms of phosphorus, when applied to soil as phosphate fertilizers, are rendered insoluble by undergoing chemical fixation. However, more than 80% of the added P becomes immobile in acid soils and unavailable for plant uptake because of the strong fixation into unavailable complexes (Hilda and Fraga 2000).

PESTS AT FRESH SWAMP AND TIDAL LOWLAND OF SOUTH SUMATRA

PESTS AT FRESH SWAMP AND TIDAL LOWLAND OF SOUTH SUMATRA

1Khodijah, 2,3Siti Herlinda, 2Cahndra Irsan, 2Yulia Pujiastuti, 2,3Rosdah  Thalib, and 4Tumarlan Thamrin

1Postgraduate Student of Agricultural Science, College of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University. Palembang –South Sumatra

2Departement of Plant Pests and Diseases, College of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University. Palembang –South Sumatra. Corresponding author: Telp. +62711580663, Fak. +62711580276; sitiherlinda@unsri.ac.id, sitiherlinda@drn.go.id

3Researcher at Research Center for sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO). Sriwijaya University. Palembang-South Sumatra.

4Assessment Intistute for Agricultural Technology. Palembang-South Sumatra

Abstract. Potential fresh swamp and tidal lowland areas in south Sumatra are about379,450 and 129,062 ha, and generally used to cultivate paddy with low productivity level due to pests attack. This research aimed to take stocktaking pest species attacking paddy in fresh swamp and tidal lowland of south Sumatra. The survey was carried out in January up to July 2012 in paddy production centers of fresh swamp (Gandus, Pemulutan, Mariyana, and Rambutan) and tidal lowland (Mulya Sari, Telang Karya, Telang Rejo, Srikaton Damai, Saleh Mulya, Makarti Jaya, Tirta Mulya, and Tirta Kencana) areas of South Sumatra. The results of the survey showed that there were found 13 paddy pest species: yellow rice borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), brown planthopper (nilaparvata lugens), whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), zig-zag winged leafhopper (Recilia dorsalis), rice green leafhopper (Nephotettix sp.), rice gundhi bug (Leptocoriza acuta), sourthern green stink bug (Nezara viridula), grasshopper (Valanga nigticornis), oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa sp.), and black bug (Scotinophara sp.). the rice field rat (Rattus argentiventer) was found only in paddy on tidal lowland. In this rice season. The rice field rat population outbreaks occurred in may 2012, where the outbreaks usually occurred in july. The golden apple snail (pomacea canaliculata) attacked the paddy only in fresh swamp. The golden apple snail was found only during vegetative stage when paddy field was flooded and it disappeared when the field was drained t.

Keywords: Pest, paddy, fresh swapm, tidal loland, South Sumatra

INTRODUCTION

 Efforts had been conducted in order to increase rice production such as trough crop area expantion and optimization of  suboptimal land. Suboptimal lands such as fresh swamp and tidal lowland are currently becoming focus for increasing rice production in Indonesia (Ritung and Hidayat 2007). Fresh swamp and tidal lowland areas at South Sumatra potential for rice and other food crops productions were 379,450 and 129,062 ha, respectively (Dinas PU Sumsel 2010). Current utilization of tidal lowland was twice Planting per year for rice and once planting per year for rice in case of fresh swamp.