JS NewsPlus - шаблон joomla Продвижение

PERFORMANCES OF SOME RICE VARIETIES ON ACID SULPHATE SOILS

PERFORMANCES OF SOME RICE VARIETIES ON ACID SULPHATE SOILS

1,2Andi Wijaya, 2Yakup Parto, 3Imelda Marpaung, and 2Siti Nurul Aidil Fitri

1Researcher at Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO), Sriwijaya University. Palembang-South Sumatra. (andiwijayadani@yahoo.com)

2Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University

3South Sumatra Assesment Institute for Agricultural Technology

Abstract. Cultivation of rice on acid sulhate soils of tidal swamp has lead to severely-reduced rice yields. The aim of this research was to evaluate performance of some rice varieties on soil acid sulphate of tidal swamp. Thirty-five rice Varieties were observed using randomized completely block design (RCBD) with two replications. The observed varieties were 1) Batang Hari/BTH, 2) Bone/BNE, 3) Ciliwung/CLG, 4) Ciherang/CHR, %)  Banyuasin/BYN, 6) Inpara 3/IP3, 7) Inpara 4/IP4, 8) IR 42/IR42, 9) Jakarta/JKR, 10) Kuning/KNG, 11) Mendawak/MDK, 12) Padang/PDG, 13) Payak Ocan/PYO, 14) Payak Selimbuk/PYS, 15) Pelita Rampak/PLT, 16) Petek/PTK, 17) Putih Olak/PTO, 18) Rutti/RTI, 19) Samba Mahsuri-Sub 1/SMB, 20) Sawah Beling/SWB, 21) Sawah Rimbo/SWR, 22) Sei Lalan/SLN, 23) Senia/SNI, 24) Siputih/SPT, 25) Siam /SIM, 26) Uffa/UFA, 27) Padi Merah/PDM, 28) Padi Kuning Pendek/PKP,29) Serumpun/SRP,30) Inpari/IPR, 31) Cempo Siam/CPS, 32) Cekow /CKW, 33) Korea 79/KOR, 34) FR 13A/FRI13, and 35) Pegagan/PGN. The soil was fertilized with urea, SP-36, and KCL with dosages of 200, 150, 100 kg/ha, respectively. The result showed that most local varieties had a better performance than the introduced ones on sulphate acid soil condition. BNE, IP4 IR 42, PLT, PYS, SLN, SMB varieties had higher yields and better vegetative growths than the others.

INTRODUCTION

Food crops sub sector in Indonesia has a big challenge mainly increasing food demand especially in rice along with population increase (about 1.49% per year; Indonesian Central Bureau Statistic 2011). On the other hand, rice production is limited. It cannot be equal to the population increase. Indonesian Central Bureau Statistic reported that in 2009 rice production was 64.33 million tons unhulled rice and was 4 million tons higher than in 2008. In 2010 the rice production was 64.33 million tons so there was only 3.7% increasing production from 2009, where in 2009 the production was 68.71 million tons. This increasing was caused by extensivification rather than intensification. The possibility of extensive rice field in irrigation areas such as in Java island is very low so extensification of rice field in tidal swamp has a big role for increasing of rice production. There is 20 million hectares of tidal swamp area in Indonesia (Bappenas 2007). Unfortunately, the wider spread of the tidal swamp areas is not followed by optimum productivity so that the role of the tidal swamp is still low. By average, productivity of tidal swamp is only 3.5 ton of unhulled rice per hectare (Moeljoparwiro 2002), and it is still below than one of irrigated areas in Java (8-9 t ha-1 season-1) with 2-3 times cropping seasons per year. 

EMISSIONS OF METHANE AND CARBON DIOXIDE AT MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIC MATTER ON ACID SULPHATE SOIL UNDER LABORATORY EXPERIMENT*)

EMISSIONS OF METHANE AND CARBON DIOXIDE AT MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIC MATTER ON ACID SULPHATE SOIL UNDER LABORATORY EXPERIMENT*)

1Wahida Annisa, 2A. Maas, 2B. Purwanto, and 2J. Widada

1IAARD Researcher at Indonesian Wetland Research Institute (IWETRI), Jl. Kebun Karet, Lok Tabat. Banjarbaru-South Kalimantan

2 faculty of Agriculture, University Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta

Abstract. Rice straw, purun (Eleocharis dulcis), and cattle manure are a local organic matter commonly used by farmers at acid sulphate soil. Composting is the most common way to decay organic matter and proven to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine amount of CH4  and CO2 EMISSIONS which were released from various managements of local organic matter at acid sulphate soils. There were two types of acid sulphate soil sample used in this experimwent, i.e. natural (un-cultivated) and cultivated soils. This experiment used factorial design with two factors. The firs factor was kind of organic matter, i.e. without organic matter (control), fresh ricestraw, fresh purun, fresh cattle manure, composted rice straw composted purun and composted cattle manure, whereas the second factor was the management of organic matter :placing on soil surface (no tillage) and mixing with soil (tillage). The results showed that application of composted cattle manure with ratio C/N 20.81 effectively reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes level positively correlated with org-C content as shown with R2=0.769 and R2=0.814, respectively. The methane and carbondioxide fluxes ranged from 0.216 to 0.003 kg of CH4 kg-1d-1 and 6.305 to 1.228 kg of CO2  kg-1 d-1 at both soils. Amount of methane formed due to decomposition showed a negative correlation with soil Eh value.

Keywords: Methane emission, carbondioxide emission, soil Eh, organic matter, acid sulphate soil

INTRODUCTION

Organic matter management in acid sulphate soil was important because it could retain reductive condition in order to limit pyrite oxidation. Pyrite oxidation affected soil pH to become acid and increased toxic elements, particularly Fe3+ (ferri iron). One of recommendations to manage acid sulphate soil for sustainable agriculture was flooding. Banjarese farmers in undertaking land preparation including organic matter management use traditional manner to make a flooding condition known astrowel-turn-behind-the scattering system (tajak-puntal-balik-hambur).