1,2Andi Wijaya, 2Yakup Parto, 3Imelda Marpaung, and 2Siti Nurul Aidil Fitri
1Researcher at Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO), Sriwijaya University. Palembang-South Sumatra. (email@example.com)
2Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University
3South Sumatra Assesment Institute for Agricultural Technology
Abstract. Cultivation of rice on acid sulhate soils of tidal swamp has lead to severely-reduced rice yields. The aim of this research was to evaluate performance of some rice varieties on soil acid sulphate of tidal swamp. Thirty-five rice Varieties were observed using randomized completely block design (RCBD) with two replications. The observed varieties were 1) Batang Hari/BTH, 2) Bone/BNE, 3) Ciliwung/CLG, 4) Ciherang/CHR, %) Banyuasin/BYN, 6) Inpara 3/IP3, 7) Inpara 4/IP4, 8) IR 42/IR42, 9) Jakarta/JKR, 10) Kuning/KNG, 11) Mendawak/MDK, 12) Padang/PDG, 13) Payak Ocan/PYO, 14) Payak Selimbuk/PYS, 15) Pelita Rampak/PLT, 16) Petek/PTK, 17) Putih Olak/PTO, 18) Rutti/RTI, 19) Samba Mahsuri-Sub 1/SMB, 20) Sawah Beling/SWB, 21) Sawah Rimbo/SWR, 22) Sei Lalan/SLN, 23) Senia/SNI, 24) Siputih/SPT, 25) Siam /SIM, 26) Uffa/UFA, 27) Padi Merah/PDM, 28) Padi Kuning Pendek/PKP,29) Serumpun/SRP,30) Inpari/IPR, 31) Cempo Siam/CPS, 32) Cekow /CKW, 33) Korea 79/KOR, 34) FR 13A/FRI13, and 35) Pegagan/PGN. The soil was fertilized with urea, SP-36, and KCL with dosages of 200, 150, 100 kg/ha, respectively. The result showed that most local varieties had a better performance than the introduced ones on sulphate acid soil condition. BNE, IP4 IR 42, PLT, PYS, SLN, SMB varieties had higher yields and better vegetative growths than the others.
Food crops sub sector in Indonesia has a big challenge mainly increasing food demand especially in rice along with population increase (about 1.49% per year; Indonesian Central Bureau Statistic 2011). On the other hand, rice production is limited. It cannot be equal to the population increase. Indonesian Central Bureau Statistic reported that in 2009 rice production was 64.33 million tons unhulled rice and was 4 million tons higher than in 2008. In 2010 the rice production was 64.33 million tons so there was only 3.7% increasing production from 2009, where in 2009 the production was 68.71 million tons. This increasing was caused by extensivification rather than intensification. The possibility of extensive rice field in irrigation areas such as in Java island is very low so extensification of rice field in tidal swamp has a big role for increasing of rice production. There is 20 million hectares of tidal swamp area in Indonesia (Bappenas 2007). Unfortunately, the wider spread of the tidal swamp areas is not followed by optimum productivity so that the role of the tidal swamp is still low. By average, productivity of tidal swamp is only 3.5 ton of unhulled rice per hectare (Moeljoparwiro 2002), and it is still below than one of irrigated areas in Java (8-9 t ha-1 season-1) with 2-3 times cropping seasons per year.