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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND EMISSION OF CO2 AND CH4 IN GULUDAN OF SURJAN SYSTEMS IN ACID SULPHATE SOIL*)

 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND EMISSION OF CO2 AND CH4 IN GULUDAN OF SURJAN SYSTEMS IN ACID SULPHATE SOIL*)

1ANI Susilawati and 2Bambang Herdro Sunarminto

1IAARD Researcher at Indonesia Wetland Agriculture Reaserch Institute (IWETRI), Jl. Kebun Karet, Luktabat Utara, Banjarbaru-Suoth Kalimantan. Email: ani.nbl@gmail.com

2Soil Science Division, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada Universitas-Yogyakarta

Abstract. Acid  sulphate soil is a graet potential land for agriculture development. The soil productivity may be increased with Surjan system technology. This research aimed to study the relationship between soil chemical properties and emission of CO2 and CH4 of guludan on surjan systems in acid sulphate soil. The study was conducted at two sites (karang Indah and Tanjung Harapan villages) which had difference in soil productivity. Soil samles ware originated from 0-30 cm depth while CO2 And CH4 emissions were  collected directly in the field using close chamber technique. The results showed that there were positive correlation between soil pH, organic C, total N, available P and K, CEC with emissions of CO2  and CH4 in Karang Indah and Tanjung Harapan villages while saturation of AL, exchangeable AL, Fe2+, and C/N had a anegative correlation white both emissions. The best relationship aming soil chermical properties with emissions of CO2 and CH4 at both experiment sites was soil, pH (positive correlation).

 Keywords: Soil chemical properties, Acid sulphate soil, Emissions of CO2 and CH4

INTRODUCTION

Indonesia has about 33.4 million hectares of swamplands covered  particularly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua islands (Subagyo 2006). Government has been encouraging development of marginal lands for agriculture such as swamplands because these land resources are not still used optimally. In with development of agriculture, extensification strategy is especially aimed to achieve a target of 4 (four) successes of agriculture, i.e. to achieve and maintain self-suffciency in food.

                Diversification of agricultural commodities in swampland can be done through a surjan system technology. There are two soil surfaces at the surjan system. The first part is celled as tabukan/Iedokan (sunken beds) which can be planted with rice, and the second part is called as guludan/tembokan (raised beds) that can be planted with horticultural crops, fruits and plantation crops (Noor 2004).

                Development of swamplands for agriculture faced several problems, such as: high soil acidity with pH range of 3-5, high release of toxic elements (Fe, Al), low fertility retes, and easily degraded soil fertility rates, and easily degraded soil fertility, Another important problem is production of greenhouse gas emissisons such as CO2, CH4, and N2O, particularly from peat soil or from paddy rice field.

                This study ainmed to identify the relationship between soil chemical properties and emissions of CO2 and CH4 OF guludan at surjan systems in acid sulphate soil of B type.

 

 

CONSERVATION SOIL TILLAGE AT RICE CULTURE IN ACID SULPHATE SOIL

 CONSERVATION SOIL TILLAGE AT RICE CULTURE IN ACID SULPHATE SOIL

R. Smith Simatupang and Nurita

IAARD Researchers at Indonesia Wetland Research Institute. (IWETRI)). Jl. Kebun Karet, lok Tabat. Banjarbaru –South Kalimantan. Email: rsmith_simatupang@yahoo.co.id

Abstract. Around 9.54 millions hectare of tidal swamp land is very potentially to be depeloped for agriculture to promotean increaseof national food production efforts. The limiting factors on rice production in this land werevery high ssoil acidity (soil pH less then 4.0), low soils fertility, nutrients deficiency, iron toxicity and socio-economic aspects. Land management through good and suitable land preparation application prepare a good soil conditation for rice plant so that can give good plant growth and increaseplant  production. The conservation soil tellage aimed to conserve land, particularly to oxidation of pyritensin soils so that can control an iron toxicity on rice. There are two conservation soil tillage on rce culture, i.e.: (1). Zero tillage by herbicide application and (2) full soil tillage with regulations. The conservation soil tillage wasone inovation  of land preparation which could be applied atrice culture in acid sulphate tidal swampland. No tillages by herbicides (paraquat or isopropel amina glyphosate) and full soil tillage with the regulationscould be controlled pyrite oxidation and iron toxicity on rice and increasedrice yields. Both technologiesof conservation siol tellage could be developed to supportincreaseof  rice production efforts in the acid sulphate soils.

Keyword: Conservation soil tillage, soil tillage, production, Acid sulphate soil

 

INTRODUCTION

An agriculture sector until now is still holding an important role on national economic development. This sectors is very important to supportgrowth of economic region, as people income resource, to give a fileld and opportunity of work for publics and to realize a national foods sufficiency because of Indonesia as agrarian country (Saryana et al. 2008). A few efforts have been conducted to achieved a sustainable foods sufficiency, particularly the effort of increasing rice production about 5%/year that have been conducted throughout increasing national rice production program (P2BN) That have been  implemented since 2007 (Badan Litbang Pertanian 2007).

                In Indonesia, tidal swampland is very wide that may reach about 20.1 millions hectare founded in four island, I.e Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. Around 9.54 millions hectare was very potential to be extended for agricultural development, abaut 3.0 millions hectare had been reclamaized  by local fermers and about 1.18 millions hectare by goverments throughout a transmigration placement programme (widjaya-Adhi et al. 1992; Badan Litbang Pertanian 2007).

The tidal swampland is included as submarginal land because it has a low potency to grow an agriculture plants. Nevertheless, with application of suitable technology and thue managements system, the potency of tidal swampland canbe inraesed to become more productive land to support sustainability of human live.