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THE EFFECT OF HERMETIC STORAGE TO FRESERVE GRAIN QUALITY IN TIDAL LOWLAND, SOUTH SUMATERA

THE EFFECT OF HERMETIC STORAGE TO FRESERVE GRAIN QUALITY IN TIDAL LOWLAND, SOUTH SUMATERA

1Rudy Soehendi. 2Martin Gummert, 1Syahri, 1Renny Utami Somantri, 1Budi Raharjo, and  1Sri Harnanik

1IAARD researchers at Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (BPTP)-South Sumatra. Jl. kolonel H. Barlian Km. 6. Palembang – South Sumatra. Email: bptp-sumsel@litbang.depten.go.id

2international Rice research institute (IRRI) Postharvest Development Program Leader, program  4: Value Chains and Products from Rice. Email: m.gummert@cgiar.org

Abstract. The researchers was aimed to find out the effects of hermetic storage in order to preserve grain quality in tidal lowland, South Sumatera. In tidal lowland, grain losses during storage may reach 2.24%. An easy storage method to be applied and identified to be able to preserve grain quality is hermetic storage. The research was carried out in two villages; Banyuurip and Telang Sari, Tanjung Lago Sub-district, Banyuasin District, for 6 months, from April to October 2011. The research was arranged in randomized complete block desigh by 6 treatments and 5 replications, treatments consisted of IRRI superbag and plastic bag, with storage period of 0, 3, and 6 months. Parameters observed ware moisture content, O2 And CO2 Levels, germination, and insects infestation (type and member). The result showed that the use of hermatic storage system was better in preserving grain quality than farmer’s common practice. This was defined by higher percentage of germinated grains and lesser population of both rice insects types:weevil (Sitophius oryzae) and grains borer (Rhizopertha dominica). This was because hermetic storage system decreased O2 and increased CO2  levels during storage period.

 Keywords: Hermetic storage, grain quality, paddy, germination, insects infestation

 

INTRODUCTION

Main staple food like rice is one of human basic needs, so do clothe and shelter. Thus, the demand for food in food in both number and quality constantly increases. Loss in majority food products, such as grains is caused by excessive moisture content and oxygen supply as well as pests. IN tropical region, products stored for 6 months had lost abaut 30% because of pests. In tropical region, products stored for 6 months had lost about 30% because of pests (berginson 2002). Imdad and Newangsih (1999) said that in developing  countries including Indonesia, total agricultural product loss is estimated to reach 25-50% of total production. FAO reported the loss of crop yields in developing countries ranges from 10-13% which about 5% is caused by varios types of storage pests.

                Nugraha et al. (2015) suggested that grain loss during storage period on irrigated agro-escosystem was 1.37%, Meanwhile on rainfed land and tidal lowland were 1.28% and 2.24%, respectively. The high loss relates to the Indonesia wet climate that causes high humidity and temperature. These coditions lead to difficulties in maintaining grain moisture content below 14%. Seed tissue metabolism is strongly influenced by moisture content, which could spontaneously generate heat and cause loss of products.

 

UTILIZATION OF '' PURUN TIKUS'' (ELEOCHARIS DULCIS) TO CONTROL THE WHITE STEM BORER IN TIDAL SWAMPLAND

UTILIZATION OF '' PURUN TIKUS'' (ELEOCHARIS DULCIS) TO CONTROL THE WHITE STEM BORER IN TIDAL SWAMPLAND

1M. Thamrin, 1S. Asikin, 1M.A. Susanti, and 2M. Willis

1AARD Researchers at Indonesian Wetland Research Instituse (IWETRI). Jl. Kabun Karet, loktabat. Banjarbaru-South Kalimantan Selatan. Email: thamrin_balittra@yahoo.com

2IAARD researcher at  Indonesia Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Intiture. Jl.Ternate pelajaran No.3 Cimanggu Bogor

Abstract. White rice stem borer was recorded as a mojor pest of rice in tidal swampland. Thes pest attacks the rice plant from the seedling to the generative stages. But in the rice field grown ny purun tikus (Eleocharis dulces ), the  damage due to white rice stem borer is very low. The results showed that of the five weeds growing in tidal swamplands, white rice stem borer prefers to lay their eggs on purun tikus. Even the pest is capable of completing their life cycle in the specific weeds of swamplands. Extract of purun tikus sprayed on rice plants was also selected by these pests to lay  their eggs. Extract derived from fresh material of purun tikus was preferred by  the  pest that derived from drained material. The results of this study prove that purun tikus had the ability to attract the adults of white rice stem borer to lay their eggs. In addition, purun tikus is also used by beneficial insects in order to servive. The existence of purun tikus around rice field is very  significant in reducing the demaging rate of white rice stem borer. With these capabilities, the existence of purun tikus  around rice field is very significant in reducing the damaging rate of white rice stem borer in tidal swampland.

 

INTRODUCTION  

 Rice is an ideal host plant for many insect species. There are over 800 insect species.  Insect species  damaging rice in one way or another, although the majority of them do very little damage. All parts of the plant are vulnerable to insect feeding from the time since in seedling to the harvest. In tropical Asia only about 20 species are mojor importance and occurrence regulary. Saveral Species that were earlier considered minor pests have recently become major pests, whereas the incidence of  a few others has considerably declined (Dale 1994).