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IDENTIFICATION OF LOWLAND IRRIGATION CONDITION ON IRRIGATION NETWORK KRUENG ACEH AND KRUENG JREU IN ACEH BESAR

IDENTIFICATION OF LOWLAND IRRIGATION CONDITION ON IRRIGATION NETWORK KRUENG ACEH AND KRUENG JREU IN ACEH BESAR

Deddy Erfandi

IAARD Researcher at Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Jl.Tentara Pelajar 12, Cimanggu. Bogor. Email: deddyerfandi@yahoo.co.id

Abstract. Earthquake and tsunami on December 24, 2004 had caused many damages to infrastructure,  including agricultural facilities. Damages on the agricultural infrastructures have an impact on crops productivity, especially rice fields. To identify the condition of the paddy field irrigation infrastructure, field observations had been carried out. Survey locations are on irrigation network (IN) of Krueng Aceh and Krueng Jreu in Aceh Besar. Infrastructures  observed were irrigation and drainage systems, and the channels direct to paddy fields. Observation was also made on soil properties from multiple location. Observation results informed that there were there conditions of krueng aceh IN areas: good (about 3,283 ha or 50%), moderate (about 657 ha or10%), and somewhat poor (about 2,626 ha or 40%). In addition, irrigation condition in the krueng Jreu IN were: still in good condition (about 1,890 ha or 60%), moderate (315 ha or 10%), somewhat poor (about 945 ha or 30%). Reduced irrigation condition can cause by damaging to upstream area, changes in vegetation density in the hills/mountains up stream. While in the down stream irrigation is reduced due to damage to irrigation infrastructure. This is caused by human and natural influences such as house hold garbage, and earthquakes. Direct human influence resulted inseveral things, among others: 1) the accumulation of garbage, especially drainage and water gates, and 2) loss/destruction of the water gate. Effect of human nature directly and indirectly include: 1) the building is old, 2) flood, 3) sedimentation, and 4) the growth of weed sand algae in water bodies.

Keywords: Lowland, infrastructure, Krueng Aceh, Krueng Jreu, Aceh Besar

INTRODUCTION

Tsunami occurrence in December 2004, Aceh Province has a lot of infrastructure damage non-agricultural and agricultural  fields. Agriculture include loss off farm land due to sea water permanently sub merged, damage to farm land by erosion, increased salinity (salinity) of land and destruction of irrigation and drainage systems. With the destruction of irrigation systems lead to disruption of the system of production and marketing of agricultural products.

THE IMPROVEMENT OF IDLE PEATLAND PRODUCTIVITY FOR PADDY THROUGH ORGANIC AMELIORATION*)

THE IMPROVEMENT OF IDLE PEATLAND PRODUCTIVITY FOR PADDY THROUGH ORGANIC AMELIORATION*)

Ebi Maftu’ah, Linda Indrayati, and Mukhlis

Researchers of IAARD at Indonesian wetland Research Institute, Jl. Kebun Karet, Loktabat Banjarbaru – South Kalimantan.

Email:eni_balitra@yahoo.com

Abstract. The utilization ameliorant is absolutely necessary in the  management of idle peatlands. In this case study, the main constraint of idle peatland was very acid soil reaction or pH value, and very low availability of Nitrogen (N), Phosphate (P), and Potassium (K). objective of this study was to determine the effect several ameliorant formulas to increase plant growth and productivitiy of idle peat land to paddy. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of IWETRI in May to September 2011. The soils for this pots experiment were taken from ex-peat fire at the Kalampangan village, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan. The treatment consisted of two factors: 1) types of ameliorant formulas (formula 1,2,3); and 2 four levels of ameliorant dosages (5, 10, 15, 20 t ha-1). Ameliorant composition consisted of (1) 7.69% chicken manure+15.58%  agricultural weeds + 76.73% purun tikus grass (Eleochoris dulcis), (2) 33.33%  chicken manure+66.67% agricultural weeds, (3) 9.09% chicken manure+90.91% purun tikus grass (Eleochoris dulcis). The experiment was arranged in a factorially complete randomized block design, with 3 replications. Observations on soil parameters included pH and EC values periodically (at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks), plant height (at 2, 4, and 6 weeks), and crop production.  The dosages of ameliorant application showed no significant effects on soil pH. There was an increase in soil pH from week’s 2nd to 6th, and then it decreased from -8th week unitil harvest. EC values showed fluctuations at each observation period. The increase occurred at 4th and 8th weeks. The height of paddy showed no significant differences in type of ameliorant treatment, but in dosages of ameliorant. Ameliorant application of 20 t ha-1 gave higher plant high than those of 15 and 10 t ha-1. There was interaction between the type of ameliorant and dosage of application to crop production. The highest rice production was performed by the ameliorant formula of 9.09% chicken manure+90.91% purun tikus at 20 t ha-1 dosage.

Keywords: Idle peat land, organic ameliorant formula, paddy

INTRODUCTION

Peatland has an important role in Indonesia’s agricultural development. Peatland is important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon (Wahyunto et al 2010). However, agricultural development in peatland must be done carefully by applying proper management techniques, because it know as fragile land, that has a several biophysical problems as well as socio-economic constraints for its development. Miss management of peat land often causes idle lands, it is because on the peat that opened the longer will decrease the quality of the land, so abandoned by farmers (bongkor). Besides the improper land management, the idle peat land also due to the occurrence of fires that alter the natural condition of the peat is hydrophilic to hydrophobic. In addition it is also due to the characteristics of the natural peat lands that have low fertility rates and the number of inhibiting factors for conduct as productive agricultural land from being used by farmers. Socioeconomic factors, especially the availability of capital and labor also contributed to the occurrence of idle peat lands. One or combinations of the following properties are indicators of land degradation are: decreased ability to hold water, increasing of soil acidity, and the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) and total N (Anshari 2010).